PINAR TUNA

Keywords: 14 July, French Revolution, French National Holiday, General Charpy, General Pellé, Istanbul, Taksim Square, Turkish Revolution.

Abstract

In this study, the French National Holiday celebrations held in Occupied Istanbul between 1919 and 1923 were examined within the scope of historical research method. The Entente Powers actually occupied the capital city, Istanbul, on 13 November 1918, and officially occupied it on 16 March 1920, in accordance with the Armistice of Mudros. One of the important developments that took place during the occupation of Istanbul was the French National Holiday celebrations. Various activities were carried out in these celebrations, which were held within a certain program between 1919 and 1923. In this context, first of all, lantern regiments were organized and military parades were held in which the Entente Powers’ officers participated as spectators. In addition, reception ceremonies were held regularly at the French embassy. In these ceremonies, French officials made speeches about the meaning of the day and gave some political messages. Thus, the French, as an occupying power, made a show of power with their military units, and also made political propaganda through celebrations. On the other hand, no Turkish officials attended the French National Holiday celebrations. However, the festive ceremonies were reflected in the Istanbul press in detail. In this context, news and impressions about the ceremonies were conveyed and various political evaluations were included. In these evaluations, first of all, the history of the French Revolution and its achievements at the universal level are mentioned. In this context, the importance of the revolution and its universal achievements such as freedom, justice, equality, fraternity and the Declaration of Human Rights were highlighted. It has also been stated that the French National Holiday is not only the common holiday of France, but also of all civilized countries. Another prominent issue in the evaluations is the Turkish-French relations. In this regard, the importance of Turkish-French relations was emphasized and the similarity between the French Revolution and the Turkish Revolution was pointed out. In this direction, although the French National Holiday celebrations in 1919-1922 were dealt with positively in the press, it was criticized that the French celebrated a feast in Istanbul in 1923.

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Open Access License

This work is licensed under Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial 4.0 International License