Ceylan Tokluoğlu

Keywords: Ziya Gökalp, Turanism, Turkism, Yusuf Akçura, Ali Bey Hüseyinzade


Ziya Gökalp's ideology of Turkism not only had different phases, but there were various sources which influenced him during each period. One of the most important among these was Tatar and Azerbaijan Turkism which emerged as a response to the official Russification policy at the end of the nineteenth century. Under this influence Gökalp first developed the idea of cultural union of all Turkish-speaking peoples. Later, arguing that Anatolian Turks are different from the Tatars and Central Asian peoples although they share a similar culture and language, he put some distance between the "Outside Turks" and himself. This began by separating himself from Tatar nationalism, especially from Yusuf Akçura. Gökalp aimed to unite Anatolian peoples through the ideology of Turkism which he developed on the basis of the territorial nation-state model as the current world polity at the time. According to him, the borders of Turanism were too broad and vague. Gökalp, who is still considered by some circles as a racist or irredentist, always remained at a distance from racial and biological characteristics even during the period when he was known as a Turanist. Instead, he emphasized unity of language, culture and religion. This study focuses on the evolution of Gökalp's ideas from Turanism to Turkism who was in contact with "Outside Turks". As well, it aims to shed light on the roots of Turkism developed by Gökalp who advocated the idea of loyalty to the state through a sense of belonging to Turkish culture and nation.