Seyfi Yıldırım

Keywords: Modernization, Foreign Specialists, Railways, Germany, Austria, Hungary


Modernization efforts are implemented through intermediary groups such as students sent aborat for education, travellers and foreign specialists. Foreign specialists employed in the fields of education, industry and communication became one of the most effective factors of Republican modernization. For military and economic reasons, Republican modernization accelerated the construction of new railways and gave importance to nationalization of existing railways, as well. Thus, a great number of personnel was needed in this field. As the number of Turkish staff was limited, this gap was tried to be filled with foreign specialists. It is determined that foreign specialists were mostly employed in engineering services. Most of the foreign specialists employed in the field of railways came from Germany, Austria and Hungary. It is seen that this situation reflects the general view of Turkey's foreign relations during that period.