Umut C. Karadoğan

Keywords: Anatolia, Sea, Shipping Fleet, Mondros Cease Fire Agreement, National Struggle, Anatolian Sea Force, Black sea

Abstract

In the history of the world, it is shown that if you dominated the sea, you also dominated the world. For this reason, seas have international political arena features in which the rights and interests are extensively discussed and conflict. It is widely necessary to examine the last era which was started in 1914 and ended in 1918 by the Mondros Cease Fire Agreement of the Ottoman Government to show the real situation of Ottoman Navy. The weapons and ammunitions were deprived, the armies were demobilized, the navy was interned already and finally the struggle force of the Government was deprived of its hand. How would weapon and ammunition deficiency of Anatolian army be supplied when the national struggle began? At the beginning of national struggle all the means of transportation were in the hands of entente forces or in the keep of foreign companies. In this situation the only way for transportation was the sea. Nationalstruggle would materialized from the land fronts but these fronts could be supported by the weapons transported from the seas. In the beginning marine (sea) transportation was done by civil sailors but then it became stronger and converted to organized transportation by the sailors who escaped from Istanbul to Anatolia. During the national struggle, Anatolian army by showing activity in the Black sea, transported every kind of war equipments and materials which sequestered by the Soviet harbors and enemies from the stores and harbors of İstanbul, and they supplied weapon necessity of front. Besides, they fought with Pontus Rum (North Anatolian Greeks) gangs in the land and with entente forces in the sea and also they succeed. This study also includes the efforts of the Turkish sailors during national struggle and the activities of the ''shipping fleet'' that was organized by them in the Black Sea.