ISSN: 1011-727X
e-ISSN: 2667-5420

Gönül Güneş

Keywords: Teşkilat-ı Mahsusa, İttihat Terakki, Special Organization, Süleyman Askeri, Enver Paşa


The Special Organization (Teşkilat-ı Mahsusa) whose exact date of establishment is not precisely known seemed to be committed to the idea of traditional Ottomanism, however the organization relied on the idea of Pan-Islamism and Pan-Turkism. After the Committee of Union and Progress Party took power, the organization was officially established when 17 November 1913. This organization was affiliated with the Grand Vizier. However, this affiliation was entirely administrative and the organization acted independently in conducting its mission. The head of the organization informed only the Grand Vizier and the Minister of War. When the organization was re-organized in August 1914, it conducted operations against Russia, France, and England. They engaged in activities in regions controlled by these three countries. They established cells and clandestine groups for espionage and counter-espionage activities. For conducting military operations, units that were experts in guerailla war were established in order to mobilize, train and manage irregular forces. It became the only Unionist power protecting the Ottoman lands in some areas.