Electricity Production and Energy Policies in the Republic of Turkey (1923-1960)
Keywords: Electricity, Etibank, Hydroelectric Plant, Thermal Plant, Iller Bank
This study deals with the electricity production activities and energy policies in Turkey from the early years of the Republic to 1960 as well as the reflections of these policies on economy. The subject is limited to and discussed under the titles of electricity production in the period of Republican People's Party (CHP) (1923-1950) and electricity production in the period of the Democratic Party (DP) (1950-1960). Evaluations have been made based on numeric data in discussing the electricity production activities and energy policies in Turkey and the contributions of these policies to economy. The material of the study includes Republic archive documents, official publications such as journals of laws, journals of official reports, proceedings of memorandum, official gazettes, statistical data, Ayın Tarihi journal (government's dating publication), and articles from the economics magazines of the period. The relevant evaluations about electricity production activities in Turkey have been made considering the developments in the field of electricity production in the world in the periods addressed. It has been found out that electricity production activities were conducted in Turkey in the form of foreign-capital privileged partnerships in the period of CHP governments as of the early years of the Republic, and the privileges held by foreign capital started to be purchased by the State in the 1930s. With the foundation of Etibank and Electric Power Resources Survey and Development Administration on 14 June 1935, the production and distribution of electric power was put under the responsibility of these institutions. After the DP government came to power and General Directorate for State Hydraulic Works was established on 18 November 1953, more importance was attached to energy production. In this regard, five large hydroelectric plants and many medium scaled plants were established. As a result, the amount of electricity production, which was 789.5 million kilowatt/hour in 1950, rose to over 2 billion 815 million kilowatt/hour in 1960, thereby making important contributions to the national economy.