ISSN: 1011-727X
e-ISSN: 2667-5420

Mehmet Özdemir

Keywords: National Sovereignity, National Pact of 1920, The National Force, Grand National Assembly


One of the most critical phases of the Turkish History is t hat the rights of sovereignty which governed by the Ottoman dynasty were taken from the Sultan and given to a parliment which would act for the people's be- nefit. This transition took place when the Turkish nation were having a se~ rious life and death situation in S al v ati on War. Ottoman Empİre who lost the World War I, ended the war by signing the Mondros Treaty. The Allied Poweı*s, using the terms of the treaty, dep- loyed their soldiers to İstanbul and same parts of the Anatolia. Thus, they took the Ottoman Empire under control which was not very strİngent. The increasing activity of Kuva-yı Milliye in Anatolia and the im- portant decisions were taken by the Meclis-i Mebusan İn İstanbul, forced the Allied Powers to act effectively. When Misak-ı Milli, which covered the minimum requirements Turkish people seeked to have for continuous peace, was announced the Sevr Treaty which was thought to be the Peace model by the British was risked. Therefore, the Britİsh ocupied İstanbul on March 16,1920. Meclis-i Mebusan abolished itself. Af ter the first telegram which informed about the occupation of İstanbul, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, evaluated the present situation with his strong sense of vision. The time of Ottoman empire ended. İmmediately, he took serious me- asures. The measures taken right after the occupation of İstanbul were the strong bas is for the Salvation War and on these basis a modern and free co- untry arised. The measures taken; communication with outside world was ter- minated, the railroads around Geyve Boğazı and Ulukışla were destroyed to prevent the Allied Powers sending forces deep İnto Anatolia, and the fi- nancial reserves in Anatolia were taken under control. Because of the occupation, a formal complaint was given to the rep- resentative of the other countries. Mustafa Kemal Pasha as the president of Heyet-i Temsiliye; knowing that the State has no authority, organised an Assembly with extraordinary powers in Ankara which later became the only authority in ruling the ııa- tion The opening of The Grand Turkish National Assembly has been an important turning point in the Turkish History. Turkish people who left their ruling in every aspect to the parliement and the president Mustafa Kemal Pasha it chose, began to understand whatever they were doing for themselves and for their future. Even though, it was not obviously stated then, that the Sultan was captured and the State and the country were not Sultan's anymore was began to be understood by the people. The people started use its sovereignty rights actively through the parliement it chose to be represented.