İsmail Köse

Keywords: Soviet Union, Stalin, Readmission, Turkish Origin Muslim Refugees

Abstract

Soon after its foundation, Soviet Russia (SU) had been expressing peace messages to the world whilst it was ruling the country by oppressive policies and trying to export Marxism to periphery. The decisive victory achieved by WWII granted SU a new chance for readmission of Tsarist imperial policies. To turn this opportunity into gain Josef Stalin and Foreign Affairs Commissar V. Mihailoviç Molotov tried to obtain sovereignty in Turkish Straits and dominance on Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Both were working for a lonely Turkey after the war and had declared this wish during Yalta Conference (1945). British opposing to SU demands at the beginning implied Stalin and Molotov to admit a new method for achieving their desires from Turkey. The year of 1945 which was the last year of the war, Turkey's Ambassador to Moscow Selim Sarper in March was told that the 1925 Friendship and Neutrality Treaty would not be extended and in June of the same year, it was told that SU should have some bases in Turkish Straits and two Turkish cities Kars and Ardahan should be ceded to SU. Meanwhile, another crisis between both countries was readmission of 243 Muslim Soviet soldiers and officers of Turkish origin who had flad to Turkey during Soviet shift of some units to Turkey's eastern borders. Said soldier refugees had settled in Yozgat Refugee Camp until 1945 and after Turkey's declaration of war on Germany and Japan Turkey and SU had become allies so-called on paper. Turkey, decided to surrender those soldier refugees to SU forcibly and 195 of them surrendered to SU soldiers in Kars City's border. In this paper, archival documents related to that case will be examined and the process which Turkish origin refugee soldiers surrendered will be focused on.