The Gentry-Trıbe Clash In The Early 20th Century: The Case Of Mıllı Trıbe And The Dıyarbakır Gentry
Keywords: Diyarbakır, Milli tribe, İbrahim Pasha, Hamidian regiments, Ziya Gökalp
One of the most prominent tribes of Eastern and South-eastern Anatolia in the Ottoman period was the Milli tribe. When İbrahim Pasha was the tribe leader, the Milli tribe had already turned into a big confederation by incorporating many other tribes. Dominating a wide region among Diyarbakır, Urfa, Aleppo, Mardin and Musul, the Milli tribe was included into the Hamidian regiments established during the period of Sultan Abdülhamit. Thanks to the privileges ensured as a result of belonging to the Hamidian regiments, the Milli tribe obtained a strong influence, and profoundly affected the political, social and economic structure of the region. By abusing the support of some government authorities and the advantage of the armed forces under his command for his personal interests, İbrahim Pasha attacked some tribes and especially looted some towns of Diyarbakır Province, thus causing serious unjust treatment. The Diyarbakır Gentry occupied the City Post-office two times in order to make themselves heard by Babıâli and Sultan Abdülhamit against the assaults of the Milli tribe. Although some investigation commissions were formed due to the insisting and influential reaction of the Diyarbakır gentry, no efficient results were obtained because of the 4th Army Command and those in the Mabeyn protecting İbrahim Pasha. As this matter occupied the Diyarbakır public for many years, the trust of the mistreated people of the region in the government was shaken.