Ü. Gülsüm Polat

Keywords: Yemen, Türkiye, Imam Yahya, Mustafa Kemal, Mahmud Nedim Bey

Abstract

Yemen, often associated with the rebellions that took place on the eve of the First World War, meant many difficulties for the Ottoman state administration, such as the distance to the center of the state, the disobedience fuelled by sectarian differences, and the pressure of imperialist governments trying to penetrate the region. In Yemen, Ottoman domination was sustained by various methods, which changed from time to time. The Dean Treaty, signed in 1911 with Imam Yahya, who frequently rebelled against the central authority, pointed to the beginning of an important alliance. The legal process in Yemen, where Ottoman domination finally ended in the wake of World War I, resulted in the Lausanne Peace Treaty. Relations between the Republic of Turkey and the Kingdom of Yemen were established in an amicable framework. Prior to the official establishment of the Turkish diplomatic representation in Yemen, the developments there were reported to Ankara through the Turkish embassy in the presence of the Saudi government. Former Ottoman officers who were present here had a significant influence in the modernization of the Yemeni army. Especially when Mahmud Nedim Bey was here, the activities he often initiated with his personal initiative were perceived as part of official relations and this perception was reflected in the intelligence records of the states that wanted to be active in the region. However, it is understood with examination of official documents and copyrighted works which are open to research today that after the Treaty of Lausanne, the actual presence of the Republic of Turkey in Yemen did not have the character to disturb the great forces that wanted to be influential in the region. Nevertheless, following the Dean Treaty signed in 1911, the 27-year timeframe including the years of World War I and the end of Ottoman rule followed by the formation of state borders, all point to the many changes and breaks in terms of Turkish-Yemeni relations. The main sources of this work aiming to emphasize the details mentioned in this main frame will be archive documents, memorabilia, periodicals and surveys.