THE MINING ACTIVITIES IN TÜRKİYE IN THE INONU PERIOD (1939-1950)
Aksaray Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü, Aksaray/TÜRKİYE
Keywords: Mining in İnönü Period, Mining, Republic, Second World War.
In this study, in the period coinciding with the Presidency of İsmet İnönü, the policies that Türkiye adopted in the mining sector and the effects of mining exploration activities, production, exports, employment and national income were aimed to be examined. In this context, the minutes of Grand National Assembly of Türkiye and the articles of Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration constitute the main sources of the study that was prepared in the light of qualitative and quantitative data by means of mixed research design and which comprises three different periods, namely before, during and after the Second World War.
In the first fifteen years of the Republic, the cadres who founded the country under the leadership of Ghazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk placed emphasis on both economic and political independence, thereby adopting the policy of utilizing the underground wealth of the country for national benefit. Accordingly, along with generating numerous miningrelated legal arrangements, several institutions that would operate in this area have also been established. Therefore, despite the challenging period conditions, significant advancements were achieved in the mining sector, in addition to establishing a substantial infrastructure for the following periods. Following the demise of Ghazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, President İsmet İnönü presided over nine different governments. Although the mining policies of the governments in power during this era were considerably shaped by the domestic and foreign conditions, the governments cared about the significance of mining activities for fulfilling the country’s demands of raw materials and fuel, sustaining the budget balance, and generating foreign exchange income through exports. Despite the adverse effects of The Second World War, which lasted between 1939 and 1945, the mining industry continued to operate in a similar fashion as the prior period’s mining policies under the leadership of the State. After the war ended, the political conjuncture that arose and a new economic order brought with it also impacted the governments’ mining policies as well as the economy policies. As a result, substantial changes began to occur in governments’ mining policies in that period. After the war, the governments considered developing mining activities through the use of foreign assistance, supporting and promoting local and foreign private entrepreneurs in the mining sector.