Zekeriya Türkmen

Keywords: İstanbul, The occupation of İstanbul, Mudros Armistice Pact, Ottoman State, Kuva-yi Milliye (national forces)

Abstract

Being a Central place for various civilizations throughout history, İstanbul became the Capital city after its conquest by Turks due to its strategic position and soon it turned out to be cultural and significant administrative center. The city of İstanbul, which was considered to be a crucial point for the resolution of the "Eastern Question", had always received quite attention from the imperialist States. Mudros Armistice Pact signed by the Ottoman State on October the 30th of 1918 initiated the events that brought the occupation of İstanbul. Being unable to divide the city for each State, Allied Forces'pian to invade İstanbul together was initiated by the Naval Forces of Entente State for blockade and military occupation of the 465-year-old capital city of Ottoman Empire. During the period from the October 13th of 1918 through the March 16th of 1920, the control of the city was nearly in the hands of Entente States. Their management and applications during this period clearly showed that they were here for the permanent rather than a short period. In November 5,1919, the number of Entente Powers in İstanbul were more than 50,000. The behavior and govemance of the occupants indicated that their presence in İstanbul was for the imperialistic reasons. After a lengthy occupation and foreign control, the city again was in the control ofTurkish Army and those who occupied the capital were forced to leave and salute Turkish flag and Army.