TÜLAY GENCER

Bitlis Eren Üniversitesi Fen Edebiyat Fakültesi Tarih Bölümü, Bitlis/TÜRKİYE

Keywords: Lausanne Conference, İsmet Pasha, Peace, Lausanne Peace Day.

Abstract

The last 10 years of the Ottoman Empire passed with wars such as the Tripoli War, which started in 1911, followed by the Balkan Wars, and then the First World War, and ultimately, the Anatolian War of Independence. The Union and Progress (Ittihat ve Terakki) was defeated by the Entente States in the war it entered in alliance with Germany. The Mudros Armistice Agreement, which ended the war, prepared the ground for new invasions of the Entente States rather than bringing the peace that was sought by the empire, and the situation also caused a resistance movement in Anatolia. The National Struggle leaders, especially Mustafa Kemal, faced the difficult task of organizing a years-long warring society against the Istanbul Government at home, and against the imperialism abroad. The adoption of the National Pact, which was shaped in the congresses held previously, in the Ottoman Parliament resulted in the occupation of Istanbul on March 16, 1920. Then, a new assembly was established in Ankara and this assembly fought in every way for a fully independent country within the borders of the National Pact. The Armistice of Mudanya ended the military stage of the National Struggle, and started the process leading to the signing of a new treaty that would replace the Treaty of Sevres. Things went very difficult for the Turkish Delegation under the leadership of Ismet Pasha at the negotiating table as it was also at the front. The victorious states made great efforts to win a war that was lost via diplomatic maneuvers. When the Turkish Delegation opposed every opinion and suggestion that would cast a shadow on its independence strongly, the Lausanne Negotiations came to a dead-end, and parties had to move away from the negotiations. At the end of the conference that convened for the second time, Türkiye finally succeeded in signing a peace treaty which largely acknowledged the National Pact. Not only the independence of Anatolia was approved, but also the war environment that had been going on for 10 years was ended with the Lausanne Peace Treaty. For this reason, July 24 was celebrated as the Lausanne Peace Day for a long time. It is now seen that the celebrations changed according to the conjuncture, and are finally forgotten today. Although this study aims to remind a forgotten day again, it also aims to discuss the forgetting of July 24 in a cyclical manner.

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